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Production Process

 Production of alcoholic beverages from molasses is accomplished in three major process steps, viz, fermentation, distillation and blending and bottling which are described in brief below.


a)     Fermentation

        Molasses containing about 40-50% of total sugar is diluted with clean water to reduce the sugar concentration to              about 13-14% Yeast cells are propagated in the yeast vessel. "Necessary nutrients such as Urea, DAP, Sulphuric    acid etc are added to the solution. The propagated yeast is added in the dilute molasses solution in pre-fermentor          for fermentation. In the pre-fermentor, yeast growth takes place which reduces the specific gravity of the solution.                      The fermenting solution is transferred to fermentor where fermentation takes place. Within 6 to 8 hours, the     reaction becomes vigorous with evolution of carbon dioxide. The process is exothermic and the reaction is                                       completed in about 24 hours. The solution containing about 7-7.5% of alcohol is allowed is taken for distillation.


b)    Distillation: During the process ethyl alcohol is separated from the fermented wash. Concentration of the alcohol             is about 95% (66 OP) as above that concentration alcohol makes aziotropic mixture with water which needs special          technique for further concentration.


During the process the fermented wash is introduced into an analyzer column from the top where low pressure steam is introduced from the bottom of the column. The volatile substances in which majority is alcohol is obtained as vapour in concentrated from (about 35% concentration) from the analyzer column and the impurities and other heavy residue comes out as spent wash from the bottom. The vapour from the analyzer column is concentrated in the rectification column to about 95% strength. Fusal oils. Which are high boiling alcohols formed from the amino acids during the fermentation process, are removed from the bottom of the rectification column, ft forms about 0.2% of the alcohol produced.


The process machinery selected generates about 0.2 liter of 35% certified spirit from one kg of molasses containing about 45% free sugar. This recovery is also within the specified alws of Government of Nepal.


c)     Denatured Spirit

        Menthylene blue is added into rectified spirit to produce denatured spirit.


d)    ENA

        Process for making ENA (extra Neutral Alcohol)


        Rectified Spirit is diluted with D.M. water (1:5). Diluted R.S is fed to purify column to remove low volatile              impurities. Diluted alcohol from bottom of the purifier is fed to Rectification column for increasing the strength of       alcohol to make E.N.A.


Starch/Tapioca/Carbohydrate/Manioc Fermentation


Starch consists of long chain of glucose molecules when producing ethanol from starch the following procedure whould take place:


        Starch + H2o        glucose


        Glucose         alcohol + Co2


Practical yield from 100 kg pure starch will produce 67.9 liter alcohol. Starch can be extracted from tapioca and Manioc.


1.    Pre treatment:

        Raw material is cleaned and divided into fine particles and may also be mixed with water to obtain starch contents            15-20%.


2.    Cooking and Saccharification:

        Carbohydrate/Starch/Tapioca/Manioc from the silo is grinded on mill, passes through sieve, transported to feeding           hopper, then passes in mixing tank, water is added. To this slurry alfa amylase is added. It is heated at 90-95c. The              slurry is transported to 50m long heating coil. The slurry is heated to approx 150c by means of steam. The mash is        cooled at 58c.

        Bacterial alfa amylase which Catalyzes the liquefication and fungal amyloglucosidase for saccharification are        added. The mash is stored in the tank for 30 minutes. Mash is cooled at 30c.


3.    Fermentation:

        At beginning only a smaller part of starch has been decomposed into fermentable carbohydrate, but enzyme     continue work and yeast also work. Yeast is Saccharromyles Cervisiae, removes sugar and from alcohol and Co2.           Alcohol contents found 12% v/v.


4.    Distillation:

        Distillation and rectification take place in a combined plant with 6 column plant. Steam consumption is 5 kg per liter  of alcohol. Alcohol strength found 96% technical Alcohol produced 5%.